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Research paper writing websites london literature review surveys books, scholarly articles, and any other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, and by so doing, provides a description, summary, and critical evaluation of these works in relation to the research problem being investigated.

Literature reviews are designed to provide an overview of sources you have explored while researching a particular topic and to demonstrate to your readers how your research fits research paper writing websites london a larger field of study.

Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to Paper. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, A literature review may consist of simply a summary of key sources, but in the social sciences, a literature review research paper writing websites london has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis, often within specific conceptual categories. A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis buy popular biography online a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information in a way that informs how you are planning to investigate a research problem.

The analytical features of a literature review might: Fink, Arlene. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, ; Hart, Chris. Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, ; Jesson, Jill. Doing Your Literature Review: Traditional and Systematic Techniques. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, ; Ridley, Diana. The Literature Review: A Step-by-Step Guide for Students.

Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, It is important to think of knowledge in a given field research paper writing websites london consisting of three layers. First, there are the primary studies that researchers content writers website school and publish.

Second are the reviews of those studies that summarize and offer new interpretations built from and often extending beyond the primary studies. Third, there are the perceptions, conclusions, opinion, and interpretations that are shared informally that become part of the lore of field. In composing a literature review, it is important to note that it is often this third layer of knowledge that is cited as "true" even though it often has only a loose relationship to the primary studies and secondary literature reviews.

Given this, while literature reviews are designed to provide an overview and synthesis of pertinent sources you have explored, there are a number of approaches you could adopt depending upon the type of analysis underpinning your study.

Types of Literature Reviews Argumentative Review. This form examines literature selectively in order to support or refute an argument, deeply imbedded assumption, or philosophical problem already established in the literature.

The purpose is to develop a body of literature that establishes a contrarian viewpoint. Given the value-laden nature of some social science research [e. However, note that they can also introduce problems of bias when they are used to make summary claims of the sort found in systematic reviews [see below].

Considered a form of research that reviews, critiques, and synthesizes representative literature on a topic in an integrated way such that new frameworks and perspectives on the topic are generated.

The body of literature includes all studies that address related or identical hypotheses or research problems. A well-done integrative review meets the same standards as primary research in regard to clarity, rigor, and replication. This is the most common form of review in the social sciences. Few things rest in isolation from historical precedent. Historical literature reviews focus on examining research throughout a period of time, often starting with the first time an issue, concept, theory, phenomena emerged in the literature, then tracing its evolution within the scholarship of a discipline.

The purpose is to place research in a historical context to show familiarity with state-of-the-art developments and to identify the likely directions for future research. A review does not always focus on what someone said [findings], but how they came about saying what they say [method of analysis].

Reviewing methods of analysis provides a framework of understanding at different levels [i. This approach helps highlight ethical issues which you should be aware of and consider as you go through your own study. This form consists of an overview of existing evidence pertinent to a clearly research paper writing websites london research question, which uses pre-specified and standardized methods to identify and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect, report, and analyze data from the studies that are wird top reflective essay writer services nyc erstmalig in the review.

The goal is to deliberately document, critically evaluate, and summarize scientifically all of the research about a clearly defined research problem.

Typically it here on a very specific empirical question, often posed in a cause-and-effect form, such as "To what extent does A contribute to B? The purpose of this form is to examine the corpus of theory that has accumulated in regard research paper writing websites london an issue, concept, theory, phenomena.

The theoretical literature review helps to establish what theories already exist, the relationships between them, to what degree the existing theories have been investigated, and to develop new hypotheses to be tested. Often this form is used to help establish a lack of appropriate theories or reveal that current theories are inadequate for explaining new or emerging research problems.

The unit of analysis can focus on a theoretical concept or a whole theory or framework. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, ; Kennedy, Mary M. Systematic Reviews in the Social Sciences: A Practical Guide. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, ; Torracro, Richard.

Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. Los Angeles, CA: Research paper writing websites london Publications, Thinking About Your Literature Review The structure of a literature review should include the following : II. Development of the Literature Review Four Stages. Problem formulation -- which topic or field is being examined and what are its component issues?

Literature search -- finding materials relevant to the subject being explored. Data evaluation -- determining which research paper writing websites london makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the topic. Analysis and interpretation -- discussing the findings and conclusions of pertinent literature. Consider the following issues before writing the literature review:. If your assignment is not very specific about what form your literature review should take, seek clarification from your professor by asking these questions:.

Roughly how many sources should I include? What types of sources should I review books, journal articles, websites; scholarly versus popular sources? Should I summarize, synthesize, or critique sources by discussing a common theme or issue? Should I evaluate the sources? Use the exercise of reviewing the literature to examine how authors research paper writing websites london your discipline or area of interest have research paper writing websites london their literature review sections.

Read them to get a sense of the types of themes you might want to look for in your own research or to identify ways to organize your final review. The narrower your topic, the easier it will be to limit the number of sources you need to read in order to obtain a good survey of relevant resources.

A good strategy is to begin by searching the HOMER catalog for books about the topic and review the table of contents for chapters that focuses on specific issues. You can also review the indexes of books to find references to specific issues that can serve as the focus of your research.

For example, a book surveying the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict may include a chapter on the role Egypt has played in mediating the conflict, or look in the index for the pages where Egypt is mentioned in the text. Consider Whether Your Sources are Current. Some disciplines require that you use information that is as current as possible.

This is particularly true in disciplines in medicine and the sciences where research conducted becomes obsolete very quickly as new discoveries are made. However, when writing a review in the social sciences, a survey of the history of the literature may be required.

In other words, a complete understanding the research problem requires you to deliberately examine research paper writing websites london knowledge and perspectives have changed over time. Research paper writing websites london through other research paper writing websites london bibliographies research paper writing websites london literature reviews in research paper writing websites london field to get a sense of what your discipline expects.

You can also use this method to explore what is considered by scholars to be a "hot topic" and what is not. Ways to Organize Your Literature Review Chronology of Events.

If your review follows the chronological method, you could write about the materials according to when they were published. Research paper writing websites london approach should only be followed if a clear path of dieser best reflective essay editor sites wird building on previous research can be identified and that these trends follow a clear chronological order of development.

For example, a literature review that focuses on continuing research about the emergence of German economic power after the fall of the Soviet Union. Order your sources by publication chronology, then, only if the order demonstrates a more important trend. Thematic reviews of literature are organized research paper writing websites london a topic or issue, rather than the progression of time. However, progression of time may still be an important factor in a thematic review.

The only difference here between a "chronological" and a "thematic" approach is what is emphasized the most: the role of the Internet in presidential politics. Note however that more authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order.

A review organized in this manner would shift between time periods within each section according to the point made. A methodological approach focuses on the methods utilized by the researcher. For the Internet in American presidential politics project, one methodological approach would be to look at cultural differences between the portrayal of American presidents on American, British, and French websites. Or the review might focus on the fundraising impact of the Internet on a particular political party.

A methodological scope will research paper writing websites london either the types of documents in the review or the way in which these documents are discussed.

Other Sections of Your Literature Review. In other words, a chronological review would have subsections for each vital time period; a thematic review would have subtopics based upon factors that relate to click at this page theme or issue.

However, sometimes you may need to add additional sections that are necessary for your study, but do not fit in the organizational strategy of the body. What other sections you include in the body is up to you but include only what is necessary for the reader research paper writing websites london locate your study within the larger scholarship framework.

Here are examples of other sections you may need to include depending on the type of review you write: IV. When writing your review, keep in mind these issues.

A literature review section is, in this sense, just like any other academic research paper. Your interpretation research paper writing websites london the available sources must be backed up with evidence [citations] that demonstrates that what you are saying is valid. Select only the most important points in each source to highlight in the review. The type of information you choose to mention should relate directly to the research problem, whether it is thematic, methodological, or chronological.

Related items that provide additional information but that are not key to understanding the research problem can be included in a list of further readings. Some short quotes are okay if you want to emphasize a point, or if what an author stated cannot be easily paraphrased. Sometimes you may need to quote certain terminology research paper writing websites london was coined by the author, not common knowledge, or taken directly from the study. Do not use extensive research paper writing websites london as a substitute for your own summary and interpretation of the research paper writing websites london. Remember to summarize and synthesize your sources within each thematic paragraph as well as throughout the review.

Keep Your Own Voice. For example, weave references to research paper writing websites london sources into what you are writing but maintain your own voice by starting and ending the paragraph with your own ideas and wording. Use Caution When Paraphrasing. Common Mistakes to Avoid These are the most common mistakes made in reviewing social science research literature.

London: SAGE, ; Literature Review Handout. Liberty University; Literature Reviews. University of North Carolina; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J. Seven Steps to a Comprehensive Literature Review: A Multimodal and Cultural Approach. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, ; Randolph, Justus J.

Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, ; Taylor, Dena. The Literature Review: A Few Tips On Conducting It. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Writing a Literature Review. Thinking interdisciplinarily about a research problem can be a rewarding exercise in applying new ideas, theories, or concepts to an old problem. For example, what might cultural anthropologists say about the continuing conflict in the Middle East?

In what ways might geographers view the need for better distribution of social service agencies in large cities than how social workers might study the issue? However, particularly in the social sciences, thinking about research problems from multiple vectors is a key strategy for finding new solutions to a problem or gaining a new perspective.

Consult with a librarian about identifying research databases in other disciplines; almost every field of study has at least one comprehensive database devoted to indexing its research literature.

The Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity. New York: Oxford Research paper writing websites london Press, While conducting a review of the literature, maximize the time you devote research paper writing websites london writing this part of your paper by thinking broadly about what you should be looking for and evaluating.

Review not just what scholars are saying, but how are research paper writing websites london saying it. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, When Do I Know I Can Stop Looking and Move On? University of Southern Research paper writing websites london. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper.

Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: 5. The purpose of this guide is to provide advice on how click to see more develop and organize a research paper in the social sciences. Types of Research Designs. Design Flaws to Avoid. Independent and Dependent Variables. Glossary of Research Terms.

Choosing a Research Problem. Narrowing a Topic Idea. Broadening a Topic Idea. Extending the Timeliness of a Topic Idea. What Is Scholarly vs. Limitations of the Study. Giving an Oral Presentation. How to Manage Group Projects. Types of Structured Group Activities. Group Project Survival Skills. Writing a Book Review.

Multiple Book Review Essay. Writing a Case Study. Professional sites presentation australia writers a Field Report. Writing a Policy Memo. Writing a Research Proposal.

Importance of a Good Literature Review. The analytical features of a literature review might Give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations. Trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates. Depending on the situation, evaluate the research paper writing websites london and advise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant research, or. Usually in the conclusion of a literature review, identify where gaps exist in how a problem has been researched to date.

The purpose of a literature review is to Place each work in the context of its contribution to understanding the research problem being studied. Describe the relationship of each work to the others under consideration. Identify new ways to research paper writing websites london prior research.

Reveal any gaps that exist in the literature. Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies. Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort. Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research. Locate your own research within the context of existing literature research paper writing websites london important].

Types of Literature Reviews. Types of Literature Reviews. Structure and Writing Style. Thinking About Your Literature Review. The structure of a literature review should include the following An overview of the subject, issue, or theory under consideration, along with research paper writing websites london objectives of the literature review. Division of works under review into themes or categories [e. An explanation of how each work is similar to and how it varies from the others.

Conclusions as to which pieces are best considered in their argument, are most convincing of their opinions, and make the greatest contribution to the understanding and development of their area of research. The critical evaluation of each work should consider Methodology -- were the techniques used to identify, gather, and analyze the data appropriate to addressing the research problem?

Was the sample size appropriate? Were the results effectively interpreted and reported? Does the work ultimately contribute in any significant way to an understanding of the subject?

Development of the Literature Review. Ways to Organize Your Literature Review. Here are examples of other sections you may need to include depending on the type of review you write Current Situation : information necessary to understand the topic or focus of the literature review.

History : the chronological progression of the field, the literature, or an idea that is necessary to understand the literature review, if the body of the literature review is not already a chronology. Selection Methods research paper writing websites london the criteria you used to select and perhaps exclude sources in your literature review.

For instance, you might explain that your research paper writing websites london includes only peer-reviewed articles and journals. Standards : the way in which you present your writing website states united dissertation. Questions for Further Research : What questions about the field has the review sparked?

How will you further your research as a result of the review? Writing Your Literature Review. Common Mistakes to Avoid.

These are the most common mistakes made in reviewing social science research literature. Sources in your research paper writing websites london review do not clearly relate to the research problem. You research paper writing websites london not take sufficient time to define and identify the most relevent sources to use in the literature review related to the research problem. Relies exclusively on secondary analytical sources rather than including relevant primary research studies or data.

Does not describe the search procedures that were used in identifying the literature to review. Reports isolated statistical results rather than synthesizing them in chi-squared or meta-analytic methods; and. Only includes research that validates assumptions and does not consider contrary findings and alternative interpretations found in the literature. Break Out of Your Disciplinary Box! Some questions to ask:.

How are they organizing their ideas? What methods have they used to study the problem? What theories have been used to explain, predict, or understand their research problem? What sources have they cited to support of their conclusions? How have they used non-textual elements [e. Yet Another Writing Tip. Look for repeating patterns in the research findings. If the same thing is being said, just by different people, then this likely demonstrates that the research problem has hit a conceptual dead end.

At this point consider: Does your study extend current research? Does it forge a new path? Or, does is merely add more of the same thing being said? Look at sources the authors cite to in their work. If you begin to see the same researchers cited again and again, then this is often an indication that no new ideas have been generated to address the research problem.

Search the Web of Science [a. This is called citation tracking and there are a number of sources that can help you identify who has cited whom, particularly scholars from outside of your discipline. Here again, if the same authors are being cited again and again, this may indicate no new literature has been written on the topic. Last Updated: Apr 21, PM.


5. The Literature Review - Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper - Research Guides at University of Southern California

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