Literature Reviews: An Overview for Graduate Students.
Effective professional learning in physical activity. Chapter Three: Literature Review An evaluative research report in on the impact of effective professional learning in curricular and co-curricular physical activity in primary schools. Chapter 2 outlined the methods used to carry out the literature search, and the framework used for reviewing and reporting relevant literature.
While PA has been part of the primary school curriculum in New Best writing websites since the release of the Education Act Stothart, there has been limited research into what PA is occurring primary school settings.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that PA in primary school settings in New Zealand occurs in both curricula and co-curricula settings. Some opportunities for children to participate in PA in school settings include: PE, spontaneous play, outdoor education, structured play, dance, drama, structured sport, un-structured sport, deliberate exercise fitnessand active transport. Part of the focus for the review was on professional school literature review education.
Further, in the Ministry of Education completed the Curriculum Stocktake: National School Sampling Study: Teachers experiences of implementing Health and Physical Education in the New Zealand Curriculum. This provided a quantitative perspective based on self-reporting, of what has changed in primary school physical education since the HPENZC became mandated.
However, this research does not provide detail about the practices of physical education at the micro level for teachers and students.
With the exception of the research undertaken by government organisations, Ussher has provided the most insight into professional school literature review primary generalist teacher and physical education. His Masters thesis explored how five primary teachers received, implemented and assessed physical education as a result of the introduction of the HPENZC. His research offers insight into how generalist teachers work with assessment as part of curriculum documents.
While this is edifying it provides little in the way of understanding what philosophical shifts generalist teachers have made in response to the HPENZC, or the beliefs these teachers hold in relation to physical education. More recently,a summary of an evaluation of the Primary School PA Pilot Project was released. An initiative implemented jointly by the Ministry of Education through School Support Services and SPARC through Regional Sports Trusts between October and Decemberthe pilot project consisted of 15 primary schools in four clusters: Counties-Manukau, North Harbour and two in Christchurch.
The project comprised three features: professional development provided by SSS; PA coordinators, one link cluster, approximately three to four schools per coordinator; and an evaluation component.
The Project aimed to improve: The evaluation of the Primary School PA Pilot outlined the success of the PD, and the joint approach offered professional school literature review curricular and co-curricular advisers. It is worth noting that the ratio of advisers to schools is substantially lower that that experienced with the Model 2 initiative being evaluated within this report, and the pilot also ran over a longer period of professional school literature review. Two internationally recognised documents provide relevant guidance about PA curricular and co-curricular professional school literature review New Zealand school settings, the International Charter of Physical Education and Sport ICPES UNESCO, and World Health Organisations WHO guidelines for Promoting active living through and in schools The ICPES outlined a series of articles for consideration in the development professional school literature review PE and sport programmes, in schools and the wider community.
Published in New Zealand in as part of the Olympism in Life series NZOC, the ICPES, provided support for the place of PE with the school curriculum, and aligned with the philosophical intent professional school literature review the HPENZC.
In contrast the WHO guidelines focus explicitly on the physical health professional school literature review, as the WHO attempts to encourage countries, both developed and developing countries, to address concern about a decrease in Professional school literature review and formal PE programmes in schools. The WHO guidelines focus predominantly on the physical benefits of PA, and therefore do not reflect the holistic view of wellbeing embedded in professional school literature review New Zealand HPENZC.
PA, curricular and co-curricular, has the potential to make considerable contribution to the development of children and young people in New Zealand. Sleap, Warburton and Waring argue that primary schools can play a vital part by valuing the notion of an active lifestyle and developing a school ethos where Professional school literature review is accepted as an enjoyable and all-embracing feature of daily life.
After reviewing the literature, Trudeau and Shephard found grounds for suggesting that a sufficient amount of a quality PE programme can contribute significantly to the overall amount of moderate-to-intense PA of the school-age child, and help to maintain initial positive perceptions.
Evaluations of programmes professional school literature review to increase physical activity levels in schools indicate that creating more opportunities, greater variety and more accessible physical activities can lead to significant increases of between 4. While the literature details the potential benefits of PA and particularly PE in school settings, further evidence suggests that these benefits will not occur automatically.
Simply having PE curriculum time allocated, and providing read article opportunities for students to be physically active, does not necessarily bring about positive changes for students and their communities.
Contexts that emphasize positive PES professional school literature review, characterized by enjoyment, diversity, and the engagement of all, and that are managed by committed and trained teachers and coaches, and supportive and informed parents, are fundamental.
School cultures, teachers and students all have a role in the success or failure of PA in school settings, as detailed in the literature outline in the following sections. As outlined by Bailey teachers place a pivotal role in ensure that speech writers esl website have positive experiences of PA in school settings. Graber outlined how teacher characteristics: subjective warrant, teacher beliefs, concerns and experience; teacher competencies: expertise, and knowledge, including general pedagogical, content, pedagogical content and curricular; and pre-impact behaviours: planning, curricular goals and value orientations; have an impact on teaching and learning in PE.
Morgan, Bourke and Thompson identified that prior professional school literature review influenced teaching ideologies, practices and the performance of generalist teachers of PE in the primary schools.
For many generalist primary teachers, their own experiences of PE and sport in schools often combine into a negative attitude towards PE and Professional school literature review Morgan et al. Kagan reported that primary student teachers with negative prior experiences held such strong beliefs about their abilities that it affected professional school literature review learning at university.
As Morgan et al. The consequences are such that as teachers these individuals then may replicate their dem literature review editing sites online Nasenspray experiences, even when their desire is to achieve the complete opposite and create an alternative physical education. The matter is not straightforward, Kulinna, et al. In a randomised control study of elementary PE lessons, Link specialists spent more class time on moderate to vigorous PA and promoting fitness than did classroom teachers with additional PE training and classroom teachers with no additional training McKenzie et al.
Another study The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development Network,using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time 1 [SOFIT] measurement technique, compared student activity in PE classes taught by PE specialists and general classroom teachers.
The best evidence synthesis Quality teaching for diverse students in schooling Ministry professional school literature review Education, identified a number of professional school literature review characteristics of quality teaching, including teaching that focuses on student achievement including social outcomes and facilitates high standards of student outcomes for heterogeneous groups of students.
Further,high expectations are necessary but not sufficient, and can be counterproductive, when not supported by quality teaching p. Similarly, extensive evidence from research in Scottish primary schools between January and Junewhich aimed to raise attainment in the age range, demonstrated that effective teaching, high expectations and an emphasis on achievement please click for source to best practice and very good standards of attainment HMI, In another study Ferguson et al.
While factors outside of PE influence these attitudes and subsequent behaviour, PE could potentially influence intent to exercise among large groups of students if programmes specifically address these attitudes. Researchers have also professional school literature review consistent gender differences in terms of overall levels of PA and school-based PA, even after interventions to improve levels of, and attitudes to, PA Lowden et al.
Girls are less likely to engage professional school literature review PA during play and lunchtimes see findings in Bibliography proofreading for hire online section. Augmented practice occasions may effectively promote motor skill learning McKenzie et al. A study of 47 elementary school children Ayers et al.
However, PE teachers professional school literature review Texas Barosso, McCullum-Gomez, Hoelscher, D. In addition, McGeorge, outline five central features considered important in an active school, these being, general, curriculum, extracurricular, links with community and other schools, and training and resources.
An EU Heart Health Initiative to promote PA in children and young people called paper for school cheap ghostwriters site research an environmental approach to promoting PA on the grounds that children are more likely to be physically active if they spend more time out of doors. The APSP found that parents of children in one longitudinal study wanted their children to participate in PA but wanted more information about what the school does to promote PA both in school time and after school Lowden, Researchers recommend closer links with parents to raise awareness of opportunities Lowden et al.
The Ministry of Education a found that the effects of quality teaching are maximised when supported by effective school-home partnership practices focused on student learning. School-home partnerships that have shown the most positive impacts on student outcomes have student learning as their focus p.
The literature highlights the important role school professional school literature review wider community cultures and partnerships can have in fostering positive attitudes and increased participation in young people, while also indicating that professional school literature review are areas that need attention and professional school literature review. This section explores PD, how it works, and what makes it effective, with a website definition editing us focus on physical education.
Teacher development programmes therefore need not only to influence teacher knowledge but also to change teacher behaviour and ultimately student learning Wade, if they are to be effective.
Moreover, three inter-linked systematic reviews undertaken by the EPPI-Centre in the UK indicate professional school literature review collaborative continuing professional learning in particular has the potential to generate high quality teacher learning that impacts on pupil learning.
Collaborative continuing PD refers to programmes specifically planned to encourage and enable shared learning and support between teacher colleagues on a sustained basis, of at least twelve weeks or one term.
The EPPI-Centre review, including synthesis of over forty studies of PD, highlighted that pairs of teachers working together were especially effective, with teachers demonstrating an increase in confidence, enthusiasm, commitment to changing practice and a willingness to try new ideas. This is consistent with research presented by Scott at the Improving PE in Primary Schools Conference that focused on the importance of continuing PD in primary PE. Hixson and Tinzmann consider that PD is vital professional school literature review achieving meaningful change in schools, and that teachers need opportunities to develop the attitudes and beliefs, as well as the knowledge and skills, necessary to translate new ideas and concepts and to incorporate them into their day-to-day routines.
Beliefs are more personal and experiential in origin and appear to influence what and how knowledge will be used. Beliefs may also play a part in knowledge disavowal. The acceptance or rejection of new knowledge is instrumental in curriculum innovation, and in the enhancement of student learning in PE Nespor, ; Hutchinson, ; Pajares, ; Ennis, Knowledge disavowal can present a formidable barrier to curricular innovation and the development of expertise Ennis, Faucette conducted a study in which teachers were identified as assimilators, conceptualisers or resistors.
Assimilators were highly motivated to try the new curriculum; conceptualisers feel they did not possess enough information to implement the programme in their classrooms; and resistors judge the innovation to be incompatible with their current conceptualization of PE. Studies have found that lack of PE knowledge among primary school generalist teachers contributed to uncertainty about what they were doing DeCorby et al. As Ennis points out, teachers, like their students, need to see more lifelong learners who pursue continuing growth in their knowledge, understanding, and skills.
PD can make a difference to teachers perceived competence and confidence in the teaching of PE. Hickson and Fishburne worked with three volunteer elementary teachers in an intervention based teacher development program, in Canada. Each professional school literature review had five and professional school literature review half hours of one on one PD, which focused on: the role of PE for children; the importance and understanding of development appropriateness; putting theory into practice; effective teaching; instructional strategies; the effective teaching model, the theoretical framework, and its implementation; and the importance of reflection.
Student behavioural data, pre- and post-intervention, in physical education classes were recorded and analyzed, and attitudinal data was also collected through teacher and student interviews. After PD the three teachers, interviewed by Hickson and Fishburnereported increased confidence and beneficial effects in terms of understanding the relation of PA to overall child development: Overall, the opinions expressed by all three-teacher participants indicated that participation in the teacher development program had a very positive effect on their PE teaching and was viewed by all the teacher participants to be very beneficial professional school literature review their professional growth.
Further, the teacher participants professional school literature review that the effective teaching model had become a regular part of their teaching professional school literature review and was also being utilized throughout the school curriculum. The teacher development program was viewed to be very useful in their professional growth and was valued tremendously p. Very similar results were reported in an American study by Faucette et al.
Involved in 2yr PD programme, 16 teachers were provided with opportunities to attend large group workshops totalling 48hrs and also have advisers come and work with them individually initially twice a week during year one, and then once a week during year 2.
Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, including interviews, questionnaires, and PD session evaluation professional school literature review, Faucette et al. The programme was successful in that participants who initially professional school literature review confidence to teach PE in their primary schools, became willing and able to implement the curriculum.
An explicit focus on the development of movement skills with PD appears to have an impact on teachers ability to determine student progress in PE classes. Hart set out to assess the influence of physical education methods courses on the knowledge of elementary education majors in the area of fundamental movement skills.
In response to a questionnaire, all of the primary school teachers who participated in PD workshops as part of Move it Professional school literature review it detailed in the interventions section of this literature reviewa Australian PA in primary schools professional school literature review New South Wales Health, strongly agreed nine or agreed eight that the fundamental motor skills workshop would be useful to their teaching practice.
In addition professional school literature review is a series of brief summarises on other projects detailed focused sole on motor skill development or physical custom expository essay on hillary for pay outcomes. It is worth highlighting that curriculum PE in the commonwealth countries mentioned, England, Wales, Scotland and Australia, has similar holistic objectives, and is primarily delivered by generalist teachers in primary schools.
Alternatively, specialist PE teachers most often deliver PE in elementary schools in the USA, and focus mainly on motor skill development, health professional school literature review physical activity and sport specific activities. Some US states offer more holistic programmes, however there is limited literature relating to PD programmes in these areas.
SPARK PE advocates for specialist PE teachers in primary school setting, but recognises that funding does not always make this possible; therefore it provides PD programmes that cater to both types of teachers.
In addition to the curriculum guide and resources, teachers are also required to engage in a staff development programme designed to: As click to see more programme exclusively focused one the development of health related PE, SPARK PE has limited relevance to the New Zealand setting where the PE curriculum, and therefore ideally PE lessons, have four much broader aims, as well as the additional objectives of the New Professional school literature review education system.
However, the extensive research generated, and results, from an initiative of the size and magnitude of SPARK PE, can provide some indicators for the development of PD professional school literature review for generalist teachers of PE in New Zealand. Of particular note is professional school literature review finding that classroom teachers need extensive training and support, over an extended period if PD is to have an impact.
The National PE-CPD read more aims to improve the quality of teaching, coaching and learning in PE and school sport. Piloted inthe programme is now available in all areas of England, supports the implementation of the targets detailed in the National PE, School Sport and Club Links PESSCL strategy. PE-CPD aims at: The PE-CPD programme offers all professional school literature review in primary, secondary, and special schools access to a range of taught professional school literature review resource-based modules, including, for example modules related professional school literature review An independent evaluation programme by Loughborough University of PE-CPD is currently in its third year.
The research methods used include surveys, individual interviews both face-to-face and telephoneobservation, focus groups, case studies, literature searches and desk studies. While the research has not yet highlighted the impacts such an approach is having on student achievement, school programmes or the broader PA culture of schools, the interim reports provide some alternative views of PD that could be considered in the New Zealand context. SincePESS has been underway in Wales. Funded at a national level, the role of professional school literature review development centres is to identify and share existing good practice and to strengthen PE and school sport opportunities within schools.
The aim of PESS partnerships is: To raise standards in PE by ensuring that all schools have effective teaching and learning in PE which is essential professional school literature review achieving consistency of attainment of improvement in standards across Wales; To be committed to managing the subject effectively within the whole school curriculum by providing 2 hours per week of high quality PE for each child, in order that teachers have sufficient time to deliver the requirement of the National Curriculum.
In addition, opportunities should be provided for teachers to prepare and plan for future changes to the curriculum and within education; and To develop continuity and progression in the development of young peoples cheap rhetorical analysis essay uk, understanding and physical skills across the partnership and between key stages.
Their report drew on interviews with advisers, professional school literature review teacher education providers, head teachers, teachers, pupils, officers from the Sports Council of Wales, and specialists appointed to deliver different strands of the initiative. In addition, ESTYN examined inspectorate reports on primary schools in Wales, completed during September professional school literature review, until December A lack of detailed evaluative research, limits what can be understood about this initiative, but further investigation of the PESS approach should article source considered.
The APSP, set up by SportScotland in Augustemploys primary school teachers as coordinators to work across a group of schools to create flexible pathways for young professional school literature review to adopt physically active lifestyles. The main themes supported by active primary school coordinators are active professional school literature review, PE, after-school sports and active travel. The Scottish Centre for PE, University of Glasgow was commissioned by SportScotland to evaluate the three-year pilot of the programme consisting of seventeen schools across five local authorities.
This evaluation focused on: A number of complementary components were repeated in each of the three years of the evaluation, these included pupil-classroom surveys, pupil-parent surveys, telephone and face-to-face interviews and focus groups with professional school literature review teachers.
Below are details and findings of three of these initiatives, selected to demonstrate the range of interventions that are being imposed in schools. CATCH is one of the most widely implemented and evaluated examples of a multicomponent, school-based program that includes an educational curriculum along with a behavioral component and school environmental change Luepker, Perry, McKinlay, et al. Over a three year period researchers monitored a cohort of initially Year 7 students in each of the ninety-six schools 56 intervention, and 40 control to see if teacher PD, enhanced PE classes in a manner that provided opportunities for students to engage in more moderate to vigorous activity.
Three custom critical analysis essay editing for hire for school professional school literature review the start of the intervention, data was collected for 3, students.
A follow up study, of the initial cohort, reportedly found a significant difference for out of school vigorous activity still existed three years after the CATCH intervention Stone et al. Kelder, Mitchell, McKenzie, et al. CATCH offers some ideas for interventions related to school-based PA, it is worth noting that the PE curriculum in the four states, differs significant from that of New Zealand, in that it is predominantly focused on sport and movement skill development.
The initiative focused on supporting teachers and creating supportive environment professional school literature review health school policies; through teacher PD, professional school literature review buddies system, website support, funding for the purchase of PA equipment, and the development of school project teams.
An evaluation, involving children aged 7 to 10 years in nine intervention and nine control primary schools occurred during the first year of Move it, Groove it. The evaluation utilised pre and post observational surveys of: van Beurden, Barnett, Zask, et al. Of note were student improvements at: Year 4 in static balance Move it, Groove it provides a model for improving eight movement skills, in combination with changes to teacher PD and resourcing, however the emphasis on movement skills, and increases to moderate to vigorous PA exclusive of a holistic framework for wellbeing need to be considered in line with the broader interpretation of PE outline in the New Zealand HPENZC.
Another Scottish initiative is Basic Movesa programme underway sincehas been designed to assist children develop their basic movement skills so they will be able to take part in physical activity professional school literature review their lives. The Basic Moves Programme combines quality teaching, and appropriate learning experiences and opportunities for children to practice physical movements.
Basic Moves comprises a number of projects that revolve around four closely interrelated strands: programme development, staff training, resource development and research. Initial results from this study should be available were to be available late inbut at the time on this report were not available. While this literature offers some insights for school based PA, it was felt that reviewing this literature was not within the mandate of professional school literature review research report.
An additional, consideration, was representing literature that was relevant to the New Zealand context, and the current curriculum document and initiatives existing within this context. While the USA offers the most extensive literature base focused on teaching PE in the elementary school, much of this is related specifically to the primary school specialist PE teachers, and to curricula focused solely on movement skill development and sports performance.
This makes it less relevant in light of the New Zealand HPENZC and the high proportion of generalist teachers delivering PE in primary schools. The literature process has therefore raised some gaps that warrant a mention. These gaps are the lack of: For more publication-related information, please email the:. Information Officer Mailbox Scroll to top of page.
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An evaluative research report in on the impact of effective professional learning in curricular and co-curricular physical activity top thesis statement writing services for masters primary schools. Date Published: March Physical eduction in New Zealand primary schools. The Project aimed to improve:. The quality of PE programmes for primary school children. The quality and number of PA opportunities for these children; and.
Key findings of the evaluation included:. Lead teachers, physical activity coordinators and supportive principals were key factors in the successful roll-out of the pilot to the whole school. The professional school literature review and quantity of physical education teaching improved in the schools, as lead teachers and then other teachers changed the way they taught the health professional school literature review physical education curriculum, and programmes changed from a sports-based focus to one that was more inclusive of all children.
The professional development component was a key factor in bringing about the changes in teaching of the health and physical education curriculum. Ministry of Education, The evaluation of the Primary School Professional school literature review Pilot outlined the success of the PD, and the joint approach offered by curricular and co-curricular advisers. The role and place of physical activity in school settings.
Of particular relevance to schools settings, Articles 1 — 7, emphasised the significance of PE and sport in school settings and outlined some expectations about the requirements needed for the delivery of quality PE and sport, including:.
The practice of physical education and sport as a fundamental right for all. Physical education and sport form an essential element of lifelong education in the overall education system. Physical education and sport programmes must meet individual and social needs. Teaching, coaching and administration of physical education and sport should be performed by qualified personnel. Adequate facilities and equipment are essential to physical education and sport; and.
Protection of the ethical and moral values of physical education and sport must be a constant concern for all. Allow each child and young person to take part in a structured PE curriculum and in PA sessions of moderate to vigorous levels regularly, several times each week; and. Offer a range of physical activities outside cheap book ghostwriting service for school system, i.
Physical activity in schools — the benefits and outcomes. PA, delivered in curricular and co-curricular settings can:. Help children to develop movement skills and interest in physical activity. Enhance social and cognitive development and academic achievement. Positively enhances self confidence, self esteem and reduces tendency to risk behaviours. Prepare children to embrace cooperation, professional school literature review, winning and losing.
Make unique contributions to developing social skills, moral and aesthetic development. Develop an understanding of the role of physical activity in promoting health. Assist students to become critical consumers of PA. Encourage students to take responsibility for their own wellbeing, and the of others and the wider community. Relieve tension, by acting as a form of relaxation. Contribute to integrated development of mind and body; professional school literature review. Facilitators and barriers to physical activity in primary schools.
To lay the foundations for lifelong active living. To develop and enhance the health and well-being of the students. To offer enjoyment, fun and social interaction; and. Furthermore, Bailey suggests that. The role of teachers. Programmes and School PA Cultures. The Ministry of Education and SPARC in draft have recently defined what it means to have a physical activity culture in a school community:. Schools that are committed to promoting and providing physical activity opportunities through areas such as curriculum, environment and the wider community, will professional school literature review the following features:.
A school ethos that nurtures and values PA within the school. A curriculum that delivers high quality PE and HE programme to support the learning needs of students by teachers who are trained and have had pay to write popular critical essay on lincoln lГste to professional development.
A safe and inclusive environment with good resources professional school literature review accessible facilities that are made available to the wider community. Good quality co-curricular physical activity programmes designed to meet a wide range of abilities and appeal to diverse students, both in and out of school hours; and.
Ministry of Education, in draft. Figure 1 A model for teacher change Guskey, As Armour and Duncombe dissertation conclusion service for masters. Five basic functions of PD strategies are cited by Hixson and Tinzmann :. Expanding the knowledge base. Developing new attitudes and beliefs. Providing opportunities for self-renewal; and. Collaborating with, and contributing to, the growth of others.
Perceived competence and confidence to teach physical education. After PD the three teachers, interviewed by Hickson Beginn popular assignment ghostwriting services for university und Fishburnereported increased confidence and beneficial effects in terms of understanding the relation of PA to overall child development:.
Overall, the opinions expressed by all three-teacher participants indicated that participation in the just click for source development program had a very positive effect on their PE teaching and was viewed by all the teacher participants to professional school literature review very beneficial to their professional growth. Sport, Play and Active Recreation for Kids: Physical education SPARK PE — USA.
In addition to the curriculum guide and geГlt: home work ghostwriting website nyc ist, teachers are also required to engage in a staff development programme designed to:. Enhance teachers commitment to health-related PE. Help teachers understand the SPARK curricular units and activities.
Develop management and instructional skills needed to effectively implement the SPARK programme; and. Assist teachers to overcome barriers they faced in implementing the programme.
As a programme exclusively focused one the development of health related PE, SPARK PE has limited relevance to the New Zealand setting where the PE curriculum, and therefore ideally PE lessons, have four much broader aims, professional school literature review well as the additional objectives of the New Zealand education system. SPARK PE found that the following model of PD was effective:.
Workshops run out of the school setting, consisting of at least 32 professional school literature review over a sessions in the first year and 9 hours in the second year, and 6 in year three.
Followed up by, in school support, provided by a PE specialist, during classroom teachers PE lessons bi-weekly, first year to bi-monthly in year three over the three year period. Teachers provided with sequenced lesson plans that clearly identified developmental appropriate activities, as well as teaching and management cues; and.
Teachers professional school literature review release from school to attend workshops, and cover provided. National physical education and school sport professional development programme PE-CPD - England. Professional school literature review the quality of teaching and learning in PE and school sport in order to raise the attainment of all pupils. Increasing the understanding of the use of high quality PE and school sport in whole school improvement.
Enhancing the links between high quality PE and school sport and the promotion of physical activity and health. Enhancing cross-phase continuity, to ensure pupil progress, in order to support a whole professional school literature review approach to improvement and raise standards. Department of Education professional school literature review Skills, The PE-CPD programme offers all teachers in primary, secondary, and special schools access to a range of taught and resource-based modules, including, for example modules related to:.
Learning through PE and School Sport. Assessing progress and attainment in PE. Evaluate to inform and improve. Getting pupils who need support more involved in PE and school sport. Helping your pupils to be competent movers. Is your PE and school sport inclusive? The modules and resources, designed and developed at a national level, are delivered locally, by Local Delivery Professional school literature review across the country.
An independent evaluation programme by Loughborough University of PE-CPD professional school literature review currently in its third year. In two professional school literature review presentations, Armour and Makopoulou a, bpresented some initial findings from the evaluation, these indicated that:.
The National PE-CPD programme involved PD process and practices that encouraged and facilitated practical, active and in interactive professional learning. Teachers benefit most from PD when they were able to learn from one another, with a framework that provided for continuous peer support and encouragement. Sustained and collaborative continuing PD is linked with positive learning outcomes. The National PE-CPD programme identifies similar aims to the New Zealand vision for Active Schools,however the English approach appears to provide a model for PD that teachers can engage in a varied times, and over an extended period.
National physical education and sport action plan PESS - Wales. The aim of PESS partnerships is:. To raise standards in PE by professional school literature review that all schools have effective teaching and learning in PE which is professional school literature review for achieving consistency of attainment of improvement in standards across Wales. To be committed to managing the subject effectively within the whole school curriculum by providing 2 hours per week of high quality PE for each child, in order that teachers have sufficient time to deliver the requirement of the National Curriculum.
In addition, opportunities should be provided for teachers to prepare and plan for future changes to the curriculum and within education; more info. To develop continuity and progression in the development of young peoples knowledge, understanding and physical skills across the partnership and between key stages.
Professional development opportunities provided by the initiative in its early years focused mainly on non-specialist primary teachers, with reports of over teachers receiving training. Enhanced primary teachers competence and confidence in their teaching of PE. Increased teachers continue reading of PE and their appreciation of its value to their pupils.
Enhanced assessment practices in PE. The PESS model offers some though provoking ideas about how continuing PD is structured and delivered. Active Primary School Programme APSP - Scotland. This evaluation focused on:.
The contribution of sport and PA to learning and ethos targets; and. The role and the effectiveness of the APSP coordinators.
A number of complementary components were repeated in each of the three years of the evaluation, these included pupil-classroom surveys, pupil-parent surveys, telephone and face-to-face interviews and focus groups with head teachers. APSP had a positive impact on the levels of PA across all of the pilot schools.
That school consistently worked to provide a professional school literature review and accessible range of activities for students to engage in. Schools made conscious efforts to develop their planning for PE and give more time to issues associated with PA in meetings; and. There had been little increase see more the duration of weekly curriculum PE lessons an average of 64 minutes a week in increasing to an average of 66 minutes in Internationally there are a series of initiatives aimed at enhancing students: cardiovascular health, and basic movement skills.
Child and adolescent trial for cardiovascular health CATCH — USA. Move it, Groove it - NSW, Australia. The evaluation utilised pre and post observational surveys of:. Mastery or near mastery levels for each of eight fundamental movement skills [balance, throw, catch, professional school literature review, hop, kick, side gallop and jump]. Proportion professional school literature review PE lesson time spent in moderate to vigorous PA and vigorous PA; and. Teacher and lesson related contextual covariates.
Basic Moves - Scotland. Gaps in professional school literature review literature. These gaps are the lack of:. New Zealand-based research professional school literature review the state and place professional school literature review PE in primary schools. Understandings of generalist primary teachers interpretations, experience and beliefs about professional school literature review PE and PA, both in New Zealand and internationally; and.
Research on PD of teachers in relation to a broader Source curriculum that aims to develop students in a more holistic manner, than simply go here on movement skills. SOFIT is an objective professional school literature review for assessing the quality of physical education instruction 1.
It is a comprehensive system that provides a measure of student activity levels, lesson context, and teacher behaviour during class click at this page. SOFIT involves the direct observation of lessons by trained observers and has been used to assess physical education in over schools throughout the United States.
The main focus of SOFIT is on the coding of student physical activity levels and selected environmental factors i. Chapter One: Introduction and Background. Chapter Four: Case Studies. Chapter Five: Case Study Analysis. Chapter Six: Major Findings. For more publication-related information, please professional school literature review the:.
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Professional school literature review Journal Author Guidelines | American School Counselor Association (ASCA)
National Education Findings of Assess to Learn AtoL Report. Reviews completed by researchers such as Timperley, Wilson, Barrar and Fung have greatly influenced the way in which professional learning contracts are delivered.
Timperley et professional school literature review suggest there are seven important elements to professional learning. No one element is sufficient on its own and they are all dependent on the prevailing culture and organisational structure of the school.
For example, the way that release time is used is more important than the amount of release time for professional learning. Effective use of release time includes opportunities for teachers to:. These opportunities enhance the seven elements of professional learning Speck and Knipe, professional school literature review Hargreaves, Earl, Moore, and Manning, Timperley et al further identify the following key factors to consider for the content of professional learning opportunities:.
It is critical that there is alignment between the content and the activities that teachers engage with in a successful professional learning opportunity.
Teachers require a variety professional school literature review activities to embed new learning and to develop an inquiry based approach. These activities may include:. Timperley et al, ; Hargreaves et al, Current models of AtoL in schools suggest that facilitators use an inquiry based approach to develop a professional learning programme within each school or within the department of a secondary school.
Schools are supported to identify their needs and a professional learning programme is tailored to assist the school and the teachers achieve their goals. Black and Wiliam argue that talking about improving learning in classrooms is of high interest for teachers because it is central to their professional identities. Teachers want to be effective and to have a positive impact on student learning.
Our own review reported  Alltag custom mba movie review advice sind, all of which showed that innovations which include strengthening the practice of formative assessment produced significant, and often substantial, learning gains.
Black and Wiliam,page However, their research literature investigation showed that the actual implementation click here formative assessment was limited. Implementation required changes in:. This evaluation report shows how AtoL supported teachers to implement formative assessment. Those studies showing the highest effect sizes involved students receiving information feedback about a task and how to do it more effectively.
Lower effect sizes were related to praise, rewards and punishment. Hattie and Timperley,page Professional school literature review is most effective when it: Current understanding suggests that assessment, learning and teaching are integral processes.
One means of facilitating the integration of assessment, learning and teaching is through student self and peer assessment. In self-assessment students have to understand the criteria or standards that professional school literature review be used to assess their learning, make judgements about their work in relation to the criteria and use feedback from the teacher to work out future action.
This embeds a deeper understanding of the learning. Middlewood, Parker and Beere,page There are, however, some fundamental principles about the processes of change that are mentioned here because they are relevant to professional development. Deep or meaningful change takes time, generally considerably longer than anticipated Smith, Hofer, Gillespie, Solomon and Rowe, It takes time for people to become convinced of the need to change and of the value of changing, and to feel sufficiently safe to change.
Only in safety will people be willing to risk abandoning secure ways of doing things and learning new ways. A climate of trust and safety emerges when there are perceived opportunities for choice, openness and sharing of responsibility. Effective professional development needs a prevailing culture of trust, collegiality and risk-taking, all within a climate of support Smith et al.
Change is not easy:. Professional school literature review is important to establish mechanisms for monitoring the effects of professional development on teachers and students for several reasons. Secondly, continuous improvement in schools must involve an ongoing cycle of inquiry that looks at data and the professional development programme to determine if progress is being made. Inquiry into what is working or not working in the programme in a formative way encourages the process of ongoing professional school literature review. Teachers who are supported to collect and analyse data in order to reflect on their practice are more likely to make improvements as they learn new skills and practice them in the classroom.
Through the evaluation process, teachers learn to http://buyhcginjections.co/cheap-dissertation-writer-website-canada.php their teaching, reflect on practice, try new practices, and evaluate their results based on student achievement Speck and Knipe,page Thirdly, assurance is needed that the time and effort devoted to trying new ways of operating are resulting in improved outcomes for students.
For more publication-related information, please email the:. Information Officer Mailbox Scroll to top of page. Skip to Primary Results ghostwriter dissertation websites for popular mba Menu. Skip to Secondary Navigation Professional school literature review. Know your Region Professional school literature review of Learning Find a School Early Learning Services.
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Ongoing Resourcing Scheme ORS. Data Collections - National. Data Collections - International. Date Published: July Formative assessment and professional development. Feedback is most effective when it:. Current understanding suggests that assessment, learning and teaching are integral processes. Self and peer assessment. The role of professional development.
There is a vast literature on professional school literature review processes and management of change, discussion of which is outside the scope of this report. Monitoring the effects of professional development on teachers and students.
OECD: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Outcome 1: Shifts in student learning and achievement. Outcome 2: Shifts in student learning and achievement. Outcome 3: Developing coherent school practice to promote better learning.
Outcome 4: Demonstrate a culture professional school literature review continuous school. Scroll to top of page.
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Teacher professional development: an international review of the literature 8 In order to contribute to the knowledge base of educators, policy-makers.
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Teacher professional development: an international review of the literature 8 In order to contribute to the knowledge base of educators, policy-makers.
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A literature review, like a term paper, is usually organized around ideas, not the sources themselves as an annotated bibliography would be organized.
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Teacher professional development: an international review of the literature 8 In order to contribute to the knowledge base of educators, policy-makers.
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A literature review, like a term paper, is usually organized around ideas, not the sources themselves as an annotated bibliography would be organized.