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Although the PhD has been the traditional doctoral degree in nursing, nurses now have a choice between that degree and the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degree. An.

Phd essay on nursing Willard, ND, RN. Jayne Cohen, DNSc, RNC Citation: Loomis, J. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Key words: PhD in nursing, research doctorate, Doctor of Nursing Practice, DNP, practice doctorate in nursing, clinical nursing practice, nursing faculty shortage, advanced practice nurses, nursing education For the past several decades, doctoral education in nursing has centered on the Doctor of Philosophy PhD degree and the Doctor of Nursing Phd essay on nursing DNSc degree.

More recently, a newer, terminal degree, the Here of Nursing Practice DNPhas come into the spotlight. As of this writing more than ten DNP programs are in operation at university settings around the country, and more than programs are under phd essay on nursing or development American Association of Colleges of Nursing [AACN],; National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties [NONPF], This article reports a study which sought to clarify what has motivated nurses to pursue a DNP instead of a PhD program.

Understanding the rationale for this decision may help to clarify some of the issues and concerns currently influencing the development of the DNP degree. This article will first review the literature related to the introduction of the DNP degree. Then the survey itself along with the study findings will be reported, followed by a discussion of the findings and recommendations for future research. However, its development has been controversial, and its possible phd essay on nursing on advanced practice nursing in particular, and on the profession as a whole are still widely debated as this article phd essay on nursing written.

This section will address the history of the practice doctorate in nursing, review concerns click to see more have been expressed regarding the DNP, discuss the relationship between the DNP and the Boyer Model of Scholarship, and assess the influence the DNP may have thesis websites editor proposal cheap nursing faculty tenure decisions.

McEwen and Bechtel in discussing the history of nursing doctorates pointed to a tremendous growth in the number of doctoral programs in the last few decades. They called for an examination of doctoral education programs in light of this rapid growth and the increasing knowledge base that is foundational to nursing philosophy and practice.

Starck, Duffy, and Vogler predicted a shortage of clinically prepared leaders and called for the increase of doctorally prepared nursing faculty, who would also be expert clinicians. They argued that this type of nursing faculty, scholar as phd essay on nursing as expert clinician, would be needed to educate the clinical leaders of the future.

An earlier response to the need for clinical and scholastic excellence was the DNSc degree, also called the clinical doctorate, which was initiated by Boston University in Veeser, et al. This degree originally was touted as the advanced clinical alternative to the research-oriented PhD degree Robb, Phd essay on nursing Margaret Phd essay on nursing of New Click to see more University, called for a practice doctorate phd essay on nursing elevate the level of professional nursing, stating, "Nursing lacks both recognition for what it has to offer and authority for putting that knowledge into practice" p.

The University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center is phasing out their ND program as the school converts to the DNP model.

This new AACN policy will make the DNP the standard for APN education AACN, Educational institutions as well as nurses themselves are discussing the impact of this process and what it will mean to advanced practice nursing, to the institutions that prepare nurses for practice, and to the profession as a whole.

The development of the DNP has not been without controversy. Another concern is the difference in degree title nomenclature currently existing among schools conferring the Doctor of Nursing Practice degree. A further concern is whether offering a DNP degree will decrease the number of nursing faculty in the years ahead. The PhD in nursing, as well as in education, public health, and other fields, is considered the standard preparation for tenure-track nursing faculty positions.

Some fear the DNP may decrease the nursing faculty pool because DNP-prepared nurses who seek faculty positions may face academic marginalization if the PhD is the only accepted doctoral requirement for eligibility for tenure. Meleis and Dracup concluded that lack of degree acceptance will preclude nurses who chose the DNP instead of the PhD from a presence at the academic table. With the current critical nursing faculty shortages, especially of doctorally prepared faculty candidates Anderson,some fear that dividing the potential pool of doctorally prepared nurses between those with a PhD and those with the DNP might reduce the number of candidates eligible for nursing faculty.

But proponents of the DNP have a different perspective. Phd essay on nursing, Dean of the University of Texas UT School of Nursing, as of this phd essay on nursing, the newest DNP program, stated on the UT website, "We foresee that many DNP graduates will seek careers that combine teaching with practice" University of Texas, UT phd essay on nursing to give priority admission to current faculty who are advanced practice nurses.

Starck strengthened her position by stating, "It is my belief that graduates with the DNP degree may be eligible for tenure if they are productive clinical scholars meeting the criteria established by a given university.

Starck, personal communication, August 21, Additionally Sterling and McNallySperhac and Clintonand Lenz found that a doctoral degree enhances the status and image of the nurse practitioner, as well as increasing credibility and respect within the health care community. Status and parity with other health phd essay on nursing may be a beginning to foster equality at the academic level.

For more than a decade, the academy has been considering a model for scholarship presented by Popular thesis proposal ghostwriter site canada that redefined scholastic excellence from a narrow focus on research to a broader focus that views teaching as a practice-based process involving classroom teaching and also research and application.

Traditionally, scholarship has been defined according to what Boyer called the "discovery" and "integration" of knowledge, in other words "knowledge generation. Society is served through this phd essay on nursing of practice as community needs for expert nursing care are met by nurses who directly give, evaluate, and constantly improve evidence-based nursing care.

More recent work by Boyer suggested that clinically expert nurses, practicing and teaching at the doctoral level, will raise advanced nursing practice to new levels in another newly recognized form of scholarship, namely the "scholarship of engagement" AACN,p. This will occur as theory and research findings are applied in practice settings, tested cheap persuasive essay ghostwriters service liverpool, revised, and expanded.

Research and practice both benefit from clinically expert nurses practicing and teaching at the doctoral level, and scholarship in both arenas is enhanced. Fitzpatrick challenged schools preparing advanced practice nurses to utilize expert clinicians who maintain active nursing practice as educators for their students.

Ever expanding phd essay on nursing practice opportunities will enable nurse educators both to teach and to keep abreast of advances in nursing practice. In discussing their research regarding student perceptions of phd essay on nursing doctorates Hudacek and Carpenter phd essay on nursing that education in nursing research alone does not necessarily provide the competencies necessary for a nurse to be an educator, practitioner, or administrator of nursing.

They stated, "Perhaps role preparation needs to be given more attention at the doctoral level in recognition that diversity in talents and career goals will add to the professional contributions made by these individuals" p. Tenure guidelines may change to accommodate the broadening scope of scholastic excellence, thus including clinically focused doctoral graduates in addition to PhD-prepared nurse researchers.

Often the attraction to the PhD is recognition, acceptability, parity with other professions, and eligibility for tenure and changes in the university structure may be necessary. Although they may not not happen quickly, they may be on the horizon. Cartwright and Reed predicted that as the DNP becomes more readily available, there will be a greater acceptance of DNP-prepared faculty who are engaged in diverse facets of scholarship in all areas of clinical practice.

They called this "expanding the pipeline to the doctorate" p. The following paragraphs will describe the conduct and findings of this survey as well as the limitations of this study. A faculty contact person was identified at each of the ten universities.

These contacts were phd essay on nursing to forward a second attached letter to their DNP student body, inviting students currently enrolled in the program to participate.

The invitational letter, addressed to the students, contained the Internet address for the survey. A consent form explained the parameters of the survey; and participants gave implied consent by proceeding to respond to the survey questionnaire, which was conducted and continue reading on a secure web phd essay on nursing. The target population included the students currently enrolled in one of ten schools of nursing that offered a practice doctorate at the time of the survey.

However, this request to participate resulted in reaching students in only five of the ten schools. Students ranged from those newly graduated nurses from baccalaureate degree programs or even those holding a baccalaureate degree in another field, to those who have been Gerichte professional personal statement editing for hire for college VenenentzГndung nurses, and for some advanced practice nurses, for many years.

Some of the programs had an accelerated pre-licensure content sample best school for baccalaureate-prepared students. The instrument, designed specifically for this study by the researcher first authorwas a short questionnaire in two parts, consisting of multiple choice questions and short essay-type responses Table 1.

Initially a draft of the phd essay on nursing was e-mailed to colleagues seeking suggestions for strengthening the survey. Based on this feedback, slight adjustments were made to the survey format.

The first part contained 15 demographic and background items. The second part contained 10 open-ended or multiple-choice questions that addressed: a factors that influenced the students to seek a doctorate, b factors that influenced their decision to attend the DNP program instead of a PhD or DNSc degree program, c factors that influenced the choice of the particular school, and d career intentions after graduation.

The instrument took minutes to complete, depending on the time spent answering the essay questions. Rather students were given a random two-word code that allowed them to re-enter the survey Internet site to add more information if they desired.

The age of the respondents clustered around the five-year period of years of age Table 2. Advantages of the phd essay on nursing degrees. Respondents were asked what advantages they perceived from attaining a doctorate in nursing PhD or DNSc degree and what advantages they perceived from attaining a DNP degree Click to see more 5 and 6. Subjects were allowed phd essay on nursing indicate an unlimited number of advantages.

Increased intellectual knowledge and career advancement ranked first and second among the advantages of all programs. Rationale for choosing the degree. Of primary interest was the rationale for choosing the DNP degree instead of the PhD or DNSc degree.

Respondents were asked to respond with either "yes" or "no" to the question "Did you consider pursuing a PhD or DSNc degree? The rationales given for this choice centered on their career focus. The most common reason for not considering the PhD was that the student was not interested in a research-intensive degree or a research-focused career; rather students reported that their primary interest was excellence in clinical practice.

Some respondents commented about the length of time required for the PhD and were not willing to dedicate that amount of time. Others added that their older age was a contributing factor to their choice of the DNP, suggesting they wanted a shorter doctoral program for more productive years with the degree. One respondent stated, "The PhD is more respected in nursing circles," but this respondent did not share the rationale for switching to the DNP.

One student commented, "I left the PhD program because the faculty seemed inflexible. Rationale for program choice. Students were asked "What are your intentions after graduation from the DNP program? Several study limitations should be noted: a e-mailed surveys have not only advantages but also disadvantages described belowb all subjects had made the choice of the DNP and were currently enrolled in DNP programs, c there was no control group, i.

It is possible that these schools did not forward the phd essay on nursing to their students. If this was the case, students at five out of the 10 schools in the target population did not receive the invitation to participate. These factors together limit the ability to generalize the findings of this study. This section will discuss the implications of the survey findings presented above. The need cheap editing service australia the DNP degree, the impact of the DNP on faculty availability, the impact of the DNP on advanced practice, and ethical considerations of the DNP will be addressed.

The results of this study suggest that students who undertake the DNP program believe their personal and professional goals would not be met by pursuing a PhD in Nursing. Seventy one percent of respondents commented that they were not interested in research and therefore did not choose to enroll in a PhD program. This is consistent with the literature, which affirms that the PhD degree is considered the research-oriented degree AACN, ; Marion et al.

The primary focus for these students was augmenting clinical expertise, and the respondents reported that the choice of the DNP would further their goals in this area. In this sample, the mind-set of the DNP-bound student seemed to be different from that of the PhD candidate in terms of professional and personal goals. One respondent put it this way, "It is unethical and a waste of resources to require people to study for a research degree if they do not want to become career researchers.

We are diverse people with diverse goals, abilities, and career paths! Some mentioned that they were interested in clinical research and evidence-based practice, but not a phd essay on nursing focused solely on research. One interpretation might be that Phd essay on nursing candidates see one aspect of research as being the application of research findings in the clinical arena. This finding is consistent with the scholarship of application as described in the Boyer Model Twelve percent of respondents said they were already on the faculty at their school, and cited this employment as influencing their decision to attend that particular school.

Reflecting on conflicting opinions regarding eligibility for nursing faculty positions, one student commented, "Some people do not think [the] DNP is really a qualification for nursing faculty, so [I] considered the PhD for credibility, but it is just ignorance about [the] DNP and I chose to go against the grain.

One respondent commented: Another commented, paper admission service usa popular ghostwriter was always interested in direct patient care. When I found this degree I was so excited because I saw a way to combine so many pertinent factors with patient care, specifically leadership in the community and evidenced-based practice.

I thought it gave me the most of what I was interested in. The nurses responding to this survey often indicated that their motivation for achieving excellence in patient care was to provide for the needs of a specific population.

The subjects indicated that social applications of the clinical skills, health care policy, and nursing care are uppermost in their minds. These besten professional article review ghostwriters for hire united kingdom Ursachen expected to provide the highest level of clinical practice in the community and pass on their expertise to other nurses through a faculty role.

Based on these research data both society and the nursing profession phd essay on nursing be well served phd essay on nursing nurses attaining the DNP degree. During the course of collecting and analyzing the data from this click to see more, several areas requiring further research were noted. Anderson as well as Dracup and Bryan-Brown report that nurses typically prepare for a doctorate later in life than students enrolled in other fields.

Are DNP candidates entering doctoral education at a younger age? This survey showed that Future research is needed to compare the age ranges of students enrolled in DNP programs with ages of nurses currently enrolled in PhD programs.

Comprehensive surveys phd essay on nursing all doctoral programs and the goals and expectations of applicants and enrolled students themselves are needed to help to shape nursing education in the future. As computers become more commonplace for personal use in graduate education, surveys using e-mail will also become easier to use for research involving nursing doctoral studies. Surveys conducted over the Internet have the advantages of ease of delivery, access, and handling of the data.

But they do require access to computers and a certain level of competence of use. With relatively older nurses entering doctoral studies, the nursing profession may lag behind other disciplines in the use of technology to facilitate its research, but with the demands for scholarly communication increasingly dependant phd essay on nursing technology, this lag should be temporary at best.

More research is needed regarding the advantages and limitations of collecting research data using the Internet. Several of the respondents echoed the comment of this student, "I want to continue on the front lines of practice and act as a leader in clinical issues and policies.

Along with Lenzthe AACN, and Cartwright and Reedthese students affirm that the DNP is a sound option for doctoral candidates in nursing, allowing them to obtain the education they desire to improve their clinical expertise, acquire the skills and abilities to shape policy in their communities, and make a positive contribution to the nursing profession.

Are you currently enrolled in a Doctor of Nursing Practice degree program, either DNP or DrNP, through this school?

Click on all that apply. What other factors influenced your choice to attend this school? What advantages do you perceive to you personally from completing a doctorate in nursing? What advantages do you perceive to you personally from completing the DNP program? Do phd essay on nursing have any additional comments that might clarify your choice of the DNP degree program? She is a family nurse practitioner and is certified by the North American Menopause Society as a menopause practitioner.

Loomis has been accepted into a DNP program and will begin studies in January Her specialty is in Pediatric Critical and Cardiac Intensive Care. Jayne Cohen, DNSc, RNC. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. Position statement on the practice doctorate in nursing. Retrieved October 26,from www. Frequently asked questions concerning the AACN position statement on the practice doctorate in nursing. The essentials of doctoral education for advanced nursing practice Draft V.

Retrieved May 15,from www. Current strengths and limitations of doctoral education in nursing: Are we prepared for the future? Journal of Professional Nursing, 16, Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities for the professoriate. Princeton, NJ: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Clinical practice as scholarship. Holistic Nursing Practice, 3 Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 103.

Retrieved November 1,www. Doctor of practice-MRI or total body scan?

American Journal of Critical Care, 14, Reflections on the doctorate of nursing practice. Nursing Outlook, phd essay on nursing, : The case for the clinical doctorate in nursing.

Reflections phd essay on nursing Nursing Leadership. The need for some sense making: Doctor of nursing practice. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing1 0 3.

Retrieved November 1, www. A rose by any other name? Journal of Professional Nursing, 20, Professional doctorates for professional practice. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 29, Student perceptions of nurse doctorates: Similarities and differences.

Journal of Professional Nursing, 14, The practice doctorate in nursing: An idea whose time has come. Retrieved December 1,from www. The practice phd essay on nursing in nursing: Future or fringe? Topics in Advanced Practice Nursing eJournal. Retrieved September 14,from www.

Characteristics of nursing doctoral programs in the United States. The mission and substance of doctoral education in nursing. Retrieved December 5,from www. The case against the dnp: History, timing, substance, and marginalization. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 10 3. Recommendations for the practice doctorate.

The professional doctorate in nursing: A position paper. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 29 Moving forward together: The practice doctorate in nursing. November 12,www. PhD, DNSc, ND: The abcs of nursing doctoral degrees. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing, 24 Ethics column: Is the doctor of nursing practice ethical? Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 11 2. Retrieved May 11,www. Facts and fallacies: The practice doctorate. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 18, Developing a nursing doctorate for the 21 st century.

Journal of Professional Nursing 9, Clinical see more of doctorally prepared nurses. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 13, Developing a clinical doctorate to prepare nurses for advanced practice at the University of Tennessee, Memphis. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 31, ANA Home About OJIN FAQs Author Guidelines Featured Authors Editorial Staff Board Contact Us Site Map.

Columns Cochrane Review Briefs Informatics Legislative Ethics Information Resources Keynotes of Note Table of Contents Vol 22 Vol 21 Vol 20 Vol 19 Vol 18 Vol 17 Vol 16 - Vol 15 - Vol 14 - More Letters to the Editor Continuing Ed ANA Home. OJIN is a peer-reviewed, online publication that addresses current topics affecting phd essay on nursing practice, research, education, and the wider health care sector. New Informatics Column Editor: Dr. Ramona Nelson Permission to Reprint OJIN Articles Planning a conference phd essay on nursing class?

Call for OJIN Manuscripts on a previous topics Benefit for Members Members have access to current topic More Letter to the Editor. It is imperative to educate nurses. Home ANA Periodicals OJIN Table of Contents Vol. Difficult Professional Choices: Deciding Between the PhD and the DNP in Nursing. Although the PhD has been the phd essay on nursing doctoral degree in nursing, nurses now have a choice between that degree and the Doctor of Nursing Practice DNP degree.

A majority reported considering the PhD but decided the DNP would be more appropriate for their professional and personal goals. The results indicate that the DNP degree is a desirable option for clinically oriented nurses considering doctoral education and provides nurses with a choice of educational pathways for their professional careers. Key words: PhD in nursing, research doctorate, Doctor of Nursing Practice, DNP, practice doctorate in nursing, clinical nursing practice, nursing faculty shortage, advanced practice nurses, nursing education.

For the past several decades, doctoral education in nursing has centered on the Doctor of Philosophy PhD degree and the Doctor of Nursing Science DNSc degree. Review of the Literature. History of visit web page Practice Doctorate in Nursing.

Concerns Expressed Regarding the DNP. Relationship Between the Boyer Model and the DNP. Tenure Decisions and the DNP. Is There a Need for the DNP Degree? A surprising survey outcome DNP Graduates as Nursing Faculty. I think in order to remain competitive and administer the care that needs to be given, advanced practice nurses need to have a doctoral Therapie cheap bibliography editing service canada dessen at the entry level.

The minimal requirements for advanced practice nurses are continually expanding and are stretching the limits of the Phd essay on nursing in nursing programs. Additionally, the expansion of the aging population and anticipated demographic shifts will increase the need for nurse practitioners, as well as their practice requirements, furthering the need for additional education.

Another commented, "I was always interested in direct patient care. These nurses expected to provide the highest level of clinical practice Silva and Ludwick question the social responsibility of the development of the DNP. Recommendations for Future Research. Additionally, greater insight into the advantages and limitations of using the Internet to collect data will also benefit nursing research and hence nursing practice.

These needs will be discussed below. What school are you currently attending? What year of the program are you enrolled in currently? What is your planned year of completion? How old are you? What is your gender? What is your race? What is your home state? What year did you complete your baccalaureate degree? Was your baccalaureate degree in Nursing? If your baccalaureate was not in Nursing, what was the field?

Please identify any additional advantages. Did you consider pursuing a PhD or DSNc degree? Please explain why or why not? What are your professional intentions after graduation? Questions 16, 18, 20, 22, and 24 provided lists for respondents to choose all that applied. The phd essay on nursing choices for these tables are listed in Tables 4 through 8.

Demographics of the Sample: Age Question 5, Table 1. Demographics of the Sample: Race Question 7, Table 1. Phd essay on nursing Influencing Choice to Attend a Specific School Question 16, Table 1.

Curriculum Compatible With Interests and Goals. Faculty at This School. Family Ties to This School. Percentages reflect number of times the factor was chosen and will not add up to percent. Advantages of Completing a Doctorate in Nursing Question 18, Table 1. Increase in Intellectual Knowledge. Eligibility as Nursing Faculty. Improvement in Clinical Skills. Improvement in Communication Skills. Percentages reflect number of times that advantage was chosen and will not add up to percent.

Advantages of Completing a DNP letter editor website nyc Question 20, Table 1. Percentages reflect number of times the advantage was chosen and will not add up to percent. Dash phd essay on nursing missing data.

Consideration of the PhD or the DNP Question 22, Table 1. Intentions After Graduation from the DNP Program Question 24, Table 1. Primary Care Clinical Practice. Acute Care Clinical Practice. Percentages reflect number of times the intention was chosen and will not add up to percent. Jo Loomis received her BSN from the University of Missouri and submitted this research study in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the MS degree at the School of Nursing, San Jose State University in California.

Barbara Willard is an Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at San Jose State University Please click for source of Nursing in San Jose, California. Click at this page Cohen is the Director of the School of Nursing at San Jose State University in San Jose, Phd essay on nursing. National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties.

University of Texas School of Nursing. Rhodes, EdD, MSN, RN, Phd essay on nursing June 27, The Need for Some More info Making: Doctor of Nursing Practice Janet S.

Fulton, PhD, RN; Brenda L. Lyon, DNS, RN September 30, Moving Check this out Together: The Practice Doctorate in Nursing Ann L. Regt custom academic essay ghostwriting services gb ausgeprГgt, PhD; Charlene K. Reed, PhD September 30, The Case Against the DNP: History, Timing, Substance, and Marginalization Afaf I.

Meleis, PhD, DrPS honFAAN; Kathleen Dracup, FNP, DNSc, FAAN September 30, The Practice Doctorate in Nursing: An Idea Whose Time Has Come Phd essay on nursing R. Lenz, PhD, RN, FAAN September 30, Reflections on the DNP and an Alternate Practice Doctorate Model: The Phd essay on nursing DrNP H.

Michael Dreher, DNSc, RN; Gloria F. Donnelly, PhD, RN, FAAN; Rita C. Naremore, PhD December 12, Demographics of the Sample: Age Question 5, Table 1 Table 3. Demographics of the Sample: Race Question 7, Table 1 Table 4. Factors Influencing Choice to Attend a Specific School Question 16, Table 1 Note. Advantages of Completing phd essay on nursing Doctorate in Nursing Question 18, Table 1 Note. Consideration of the PhD or the DNP Question 22, Table 1 Table 8.

Intentions After Graduation from the DNP Program Question 24, Table 1 Note.

Phd essay on nursing

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